Rutherford GW, Lifson AR, Hessol NA, et al. Course of HIV-1 infection in a cohort of homosexual and bisexual men: an 11-year follow-up study. BMJ
. 1990;301: 1183-1188.Link to Article
Burke DS, Redfield RR. The stages of HIV infection: a predictable, progressive disease. In Rapoza N, ed. HIV Infection and Disease . Chicago, Ill: American Medical Association; 1989:1-11.
Sears SD, Fox R, Brookmeyer R, Leavitt R, Polk BF. Delayed hypersensitivity skin testing and anergy in a population of gay men. Clin Immunol Immunopathol
. 1987;45:177-183.Link to Article
Gottlieb MS, Schroff R, Schanker HM, et al. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and mucosal candidiasis in previously healthy homosexual men: evidence of a new acquired cellular immunodeficiency. N Engl J Med
. 1981;305:1425-1431.Link to Article
Fauci AS, Macher AM, Longo DL, et al. NIH Conference. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: epidemiologic, clinical, immunologic and therapeutic considerations. Ann Intern Med
. 1984;100:92-106.Link to Article
Koenig SM, Fauci AS. Pathogenesis of AIDS. In Rapoza N, ed. HIV Infection and Disease . Chicago, Ill: American Medical Association; 1989:71-85.
Seligmann M, Chess L, Fahey JL, et al. AIDS: An immunologic reevaluation. N Engl J Med
. 1984;311:1286-1292.Link to Article
Springer TA. Adhesion receptors of the immune system. Nature
. 1990;346:425-434.Link to Article
Sattentau QJ, Weiss RA. The CD4 antigen: physiological ligand and HIV receptor. Cell
. 1988;52:631-633.Link to Article
Dalgleish AG, Beverley PC, Clapham PR, Crawford DH, Greaves MF, Weiss RA. The CD4(T4) antigen is an essential component of the receptor for the AIDS retrovirus. Nature
. 1984;312:763-766.Link to Article
Jameson BA, Rao PE, Kong LI, et al. Location and chemical synthesis of a binding site for HIV-1 on the CD4 protein. Science
. 1988;240:1335-1339.Link to Article
Fahey JL, Prince H, Weaver M, et al. Quantitative changes in T helper or T suppressor/cytotoxic lymphocyte subsets that distinguish acquired immune deficiency syndrome from other immune subset disorders. Am J Med
. 1984;76:95-100.Link to Article
Polk BF, Fox R, Brookmeyer R, et al. Predictors of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome developing in a cohort of seropositive homosexual men. N Engl J Med
. 1987;316:61-66.Link to Article
Goerdert JJ, Biggar RJ, Melbye M, et al. Effect of T4 count and cofactors on the incidence of AIDS in homosexual men infected with human immunodeficiency virus. JAMA
. 1987;257:331-334.Link to Article
Masur H, Ognibene FP, Yarchoan R, et al. CD4 counts as predictors of opportunistic pneumonias in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Ann Intern Med
. 1989;111:223-231.Link to Article
Fahey JL, Taylor JMG, Detels R, et al. The prognostic value of cellular and serologic markers in infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. N Engl J Med
. 1990;322:166-172.Link to Article
Melbye M, Biggar RJ, Ebbesen P, et al. Long-term seropositivity for human T-lymphotropic virus type III in homosexual men without the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: development of immunologic and clinical abnormalities: a longitudinal study. Ann Intern Med
. 1986;104:496-500.Link to Article
Jacobson MA, Bacchetti P, Kolokathis A, et al. Surrogate markers for survival in patients with AIDS and AIDS related complex treated with zidovudine. BMJ
. 1991;302:73-78.Link to Article
Aledort LM. Serial CD4 counts in relation to the decision to treat asymptomatic HIV-1 infection. In: Program and abstracts of the VII International AIDS Conference ; June 1991; Florence, Italy. Abstract MB 35.
Nicholson JKA, Jones BM. Immunophenotyping by flow cytometry: its use in HIV infection. Labmedica . 1989:21-26.
Revised Classification System for HIV Infection and Expanded AIDS Surveillance Case Definition for Adolescents and Adults . Atlanta, Ga: US Dept of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control; 1992. Draft dated November 15,1991.
Miller-Catchpole R, Rapoza NP. Prophylactic treatment for opportunistic infections in HIV-positive patients: aerosolized pentamidine. JAMA
. 1990;263:2510-2514.Link to Article
Kovacs A, Frederick T, Church J, Eller A, Oxtoby M, Mascola L. CD4 T-lymphocyte counts and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in pediatric HIV infection. JAMA
. 1991;265:1698-1703.Link to Article
Jacobson MA, Besch CL, Child C, Hafner R, Muth K, Beyton L. Clinical programs for clinical research on AIDS: description of a randomized prospective study of clindamycin versus pyrimethamine for prevention of Toxoplasma gondii infection. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis
. 1991;10:195-198.Link to Article
Di Perri G, Micciolo R, Vento S, Cruciani M, Concia E, Bassetti D. CD4 count as predictor of reactivation of tuberculosis in HIV infection. In: Program and abstracts of the VII International AIDS Conference ; June 1991; Florence, Italy. Abstract WB 2359.
Fischl MA, Richman DD, Grieco MH. The efficacy of azidothymidine (AZT) in the treatment of patients with AIDS and AIDS-related complex: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. N Engl J Med
. 1987;317:185-191.Link to Article
Cotton P. HIV surrogate markers weighted. JAMA
. 1991;265:1357-1362.Link to Article
Jacobson MA, Abrams DI, Volberding PA, et al. Serum β2-microglobulin decreases in patients with AIDS or ARC treated with azidethymidine. J Infect Dis
. 1989;159:1029-1036.Link to Article
Paul WE. Fundamental Immunology . New York, NY: Raven Press; 1984.
Vitiello A, Potter TA, Sherman LA. The role of beta 2-microglobulin in peptide binding by class I molecules. Science
. 1990;250:1423-1426.Link to Article
Perarnau B, Siegrist CA, Gillet A, Vincent C, Kimura S, Lemonnier FA. Beta 2-microglobulin restriction of antigen presentation. Nature
. 1990;346:751-754.Link to Article
Zolla-Pazner S, William D, El-Sadr W, Marmor M, Stahl R. Quantitation of beta 2-microglobulin and other immune characteristics in a prospective study of men at risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome. JAMA
. 1984;251:2951-2955.Link to Article
Moss AR, Bacchetti P, Osmond D, et al. Seropositivity for HIV and the development of AIDS or AIDS related condition: three year follow up of the San Francisco General Hospital cohort. BMJ
. 1988;296:745-750.Link to Article
Chan MM, Campos JM, Josephs S, Rifai N. Beta 2-microglobulin and neopterin: predictive markers for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in children. J Clin Microbiol . 1990;28:2215-2219.
Falloon J, Eddy J, Weiner L, Pizzo PA. Human immunodeficiency virus infection in children. J Pediatr
. 1989;114:1-30.Link to Article
Massironi E, D'Arminio MA, Marchisio P, et al. Beta-2 microglobulin and neopterin as markers of zidovudine efficacy in HIV infected symptomatic children. In: Program and abstracts of the VII International AIDS Conference ; June 1991; Florence, Italy. Abstract WB 2024.
Forman DT. Beta 2-microglobulin: an immunogenetic marker of inflammatory and malignant origin. Ann Clin Lab Sci . 1982;12:447-452.
Huber C, Batchelor JR, Fuchs D, et al. Immune response-associated production of neopterin: release from macrophages primarily under control of interferongamma. J Exp Med
. 1984;160:310-316.Link to Article
Neopterins in clinical medicine. Lancet . 1988;1:509-511. Editorial.
Melmed RN, Taylor JM, Detels R, Bozorgmehri M, Fahey JL. Serum neopterin changes in HIV-infected subjects: indication of significant pathology, CD4 T cell changes, and the development of AIDS. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr . 1989;2:70-76.
Fuchs D, Hausen A, Reibnegger G, et al. Urinary neopterin in the diagnosis of acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Eur J Clin Microbiol
. 1984;3:70-71.Link to Article
Perna M, Nitsch F, Santelli G, et al. Urinary neopterin, a useful marker for AIDS? Lancet
. 1985;1:1048.Link to Article
Griffin DE, McArthur JC, Cornblath DR. Neopterin and interferon-gamma in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with HIV-associated neurologic disease. Neurology
. 1991;41:69-74.Link to Article
Rautonen J, Martin NL, Rautonen N, Wara DW. Neopterin in diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus infection in infants. J Clin Microbiol . 1991;29:850.
Greene WC. The molecular biology of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. N Engl J Med
. 1991;324:308-317.Link to Article
Goudsmit J, de Wolf F, Paul DA, et al. Expression of human immunodeficiency virus antigen (HIV-Ag) in serum and cerebrospinal fluid during acute and chronic infection. Lancet
. 1986;2:177-180.Link to Article
Kessler HA, Blaauw B, Spear J, Paul DA, Falk LA, Landay A. Diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus infection in seronegative homosexuals presenting with an acute viral syndrome. JAMA
. 1987;258:1196-1199.Link to Article
Allain JP, Laurian Y, Paul DA, Senn D. Serological markers in early stages of human immunodeficiency virus infection in haemophiliacs. Lancet
. 1986;2:1233-1236.Link to Article
Gaines H, Sönnerborg A, Czajkowski J, et al. Antibody response in primary human immunodeficiency virus infection. Lancet
. 1987;2:1249-1253.Link to Article
Farzadegan H, Polis MA, Wolinsky SM, et al. Loss of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-I) antibodies with evidence of viral infection in asymptomatic homosexual men: a report from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. Ann Intern Med
. 1988;108:785-790.Link to Article
Lange JM, Coutinho RA, Krone WJ, et al. Distinct IgG recognition patterns during progression of subclinical and clinical infection with lymphadenopathy associated virus/human T lymphotrophic virus. BMJ
. 1986;292:228-230.Link to Article
Lange JM, Paul DA, Huisman HG, et al. Persistent HIV antigenaemia and decline of HIV core antibodies associated with transition to AIDS. BMJ
. 1986;293: 1459-1462.Link to Article
Allain JP, Laurian Y, Paul DA, et al. Long-term evaluation of HIV antigen and antibodies to p24 and gp41 in patients with hemophilia: potential clinical importance. N Engl J Med
. 1987;317:114-121.Link to Article
Cao YZ, Valentine F, Hojvat S, et al. Detection of HIV antigen and specific antibodies to HIV core and envelope proteins in sera of patients with HIV infection. Blood . 1987;70:575-578.
Pedersen C, Nielsen CM, Vestergaard BF, Gerstoft J, Krogsgaard K, Neilsen JO. Temporal relation of antigenaemia and loss of antibodies to core antigens to development of clinical disease in HIV infection. BMJ
. 1987;295:567-569.Link to Article