We're unable to sign you in at this time. Please try again in a few minutes.
We were able to sign you in, but your subscription(s) could not be found. Please try again in a few minutes.
There may be a problem with your account. Please contact the AMA Service Center to resolve this issue.
Contact the AMA Service Center:
Telephone: 1 (800) 262-2350 or 1 (312) 670-7827  *   Email: subscriptions@jamanetwork.com
Error Message ......
Article |

Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia With Both Cold and Warm Autoantibodies

Ira A. Shulman, MD; Donal R. Branch, MT(ASCP)SBB; Janice M. Nelson, MD; Joseph C. Thompson, MD; Sunita Saxena, MD; Lawrence D. Petz, MD
JAMA. 1985;253(12):1746-1748. doi:10.1001/jama.1985.03350360072021.
Text Size: A A A
Published online


Of 144 patients with a positive direct antiglobulin test and having autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA), 12 (8.3%) satisfied diagnostic criteria for both warm antibody AIHA and cold agglutinin syndrome. All 12 patients had IgG and C3d sensitizing their erythrocytes, and samples of their serum contained IgM cold autohemagglutinins optimally reactive at 4 °C, but with a high thermal amplitude to 37 °C, and IgG warm autoantibodies. All red blood cell eluates contained IgG warm autoantibodies. The 12 patients had severe hemolytic anemia that responded dramatically to corticosteroid therapy, with the mean hemoglobin level increasing from 6.3 to 12.9 g/dL. Five patients (42%) had systemic lupus erythematosus, one patient (8%) had a non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and six patients (50%) had idiopathic AIHA; four patients (33%) had concomitant thrombocytopenia (Evans' syndrome). Nine patients (75%) were female. Four patients had unexpected alloantibodies potentially capable of in vivo hemolysis of transfused blood. Because of the severe hemolysis, the serologic findings, and the dramatic initial clinical response to corticosteroid therapy, these patients represent a distinct catagory of AIHA and should be given corticosteroid therapy quickly.

(JAMA 1985;253:1746-1748)


Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?




Also Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
Please click the checkbox indicating that you have read the full article in order to submit your answers.
Your answers have been saved for later.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.


Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

0 Citations

Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.