We're unable to sign you in at this time. Please try again in a few minutes.
We were able to sign you in, but your subscription(s) could not be found. Please try again in a few minutes.
There may be a problem with your account. Please contact the AMA Service Center to resolve this issue.
Contact the AMA Service Center:
Telephone: 1 (800) 262-2350 or 1 (312) 670-7827  *   Email: subscriptions@jamanetwork.com
Error Message ......
Article |

Women Walking for Health and Fitness How Much Is Enough?

John J. Duncan, PhD; Neil F. Gordon, MBBCh, PhD; Chris B. Scott, MS
JAMA. 1991;266(23):3295-3299. doi:10.1001/jama.1991.03470230053030.
Text Size: A A A
Published online


Objective.  —We studied whether the quantity and quality of walking necessary to decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease among women differed substantially from that required to improve cardiorespiratory fitness.

Design.  —A randomized, controlled, dose-response clinical trial with a follow-up of 24 weeks.

Setting.  —A private, nonprofit biomedical research facility.

Participants.  —One hundred two sedentary premenopausal women, 20 to 40 years of age, were randomized to one of four treatment groups; 59 completed the study (16 aerobic walkers [8.0-km/h group], 12 brisk walkers [6.4-km/h group], 18 strollers [4.8-km/h group], and 13 sedentary controls). Eighty-one percent were white, 17% black, and 2% Hispanic.

Intervention.  —Intervention groups walked 4.8 km per day, 5 days per week at 8.0 km/h, 6.4 km/h, or 4.8 km/h on a tartan-surfaced, 1.6-km track for 24 weeks.

Main Outcome Measures.  —Fitness (determined by maximal oxygen uptake) and cardiovascular risk factors (determined by resting blood pressure and serum lipid and lipoprotein levels).

Results.  —As compared with controls, maximal oxygen uptake increased significantly (P<.0001) and in a dose-response manner (aerobic walkers>brisk walkers>strollers). In contrast, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were not dose related and increased significantly (P<.05) and to the same extent among women who experienced considerable improvements in their physical fitness (8.0-km/h group, +0.08 mmol/L) and those who had only minimal improvements in fitness (4.8-km/h group, +0.08 mmol/L). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol also increased among the 6.4-km/h group, but did not attain statistical significance (+0.06 mmol/L; P=.06). Dietary patterns revealed no significant differences among groups.

Conclusion.  —Thus, we conclude that vigorous exercise is not necessary for women to obtain meaningful improvements in their lipoprotein profile. Walking at intensities that do not have a major impact on cardiorespiratory fitness may nonetheless produce equally favorable changes in the cardiovascular risk profile.(JAMA. 1991;266:3295-3299)


Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?




Also Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
Please click the checkbox indicating that you have read the full article in order to submit your answers.
Your answers have been saved for later.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.


Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

0 Citations

Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.