We're unable to sign you in at this time. Please try again in a few minutes.
We were able to sign you in, but your subscription(s) could not be found. Please try again in a few minutes.
There may be a problem with your account. Please contact the AMA Service Center to resolve this issue.
Contact the AMA Service Center:
Telephone: 1 (800) 262-2350 or 1 (312) 670-7827  *   Email: subscriptions@jamanetwork.com
Error Message ......
Article |

X-rays and Breast Cancer

John W. Gofman, MD, PhD
JAMA. 1995;274(22):1762. doi:10.1001/jama.1995.03530220028025.
Text Size: A A A
Published online


To the Editor.  —My estimate that at least 75% of current breast cancer in the United States is due to earlier medical irradiation1 was called a 12-fold overestimate in the article by Mr Skolnick.2 He is quoting Clark Heath of the American Cancer Society, who asserts that I made "two serious errors."First, an alleged twofold overestimate comes from my "assumption" that dose response is supralinear. This is no assumption. The human evidence from the survivors of the atomic bomb for all cancers combined shows supralinearity fitting the observations provably better than linearity.3 Supralinearity specifically for breast cancer is visible to anyone who inspects the figure on page S26 of Thompson et al,4 although the analysis by Land5 raises questions.Second, an alleged sixfold overestimate comes from transport of Japanese evidence to the United States. Why did I not use North American data? Because (1)


Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?

First Page Preview

View Large
First page PDF preview




Also Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
Please click the checkbox indicating that you have read the full article in order to submit your answers.
Your answers have been saved for later.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.


Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

0 Citations

Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.