Arboviral Disease—United States, 1994

JAMA. 1995;274(14):1110-1112. doi:10.1001/jama.1995.03530140022013.
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At CDC, a confirmed case is defined as febrile illness with mild neurologic symptoms, aseptic meningitis, or encephalitis with onset during a period when arbovirus transmission is likely to occur, plus at least one of the following criteria: (1) fourfold or greater rise in serum antibody titer, (2) viral isolation from tissue, blood, or cerebrospinal fluid; or (3) specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody in cerebrospinal fluid. A presumptive case is defined as compatible illness, plus either a stable elevated antibody titer to an arbovirus (≥320 by hemagglutination inhibition, ≥128 by complement fixation, ≥256 by immunofluorescent assay, or ≥160 by plaque-reduction neutralization test) or specific IgM antibody in serum by enzyme immunoassay.
Tamiasciurus hudsonicus, Marmota monax and Mephitis mephitis, Spilogale putorius, Vulpes sp. Urocyon Cinereoargenteus (gray fox), Mustella erminea and Mustell frenata, and Peromyscus maniculatus, respectively.


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