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Users' Guides to the Medical Literature VIII. How to Use Clinical Practice Guidelines A. Are the Recommendations Valid?

Robert S. A. Hayward, MD, MPH; Mark C. Wilson, MD, MPH; Sean R. Tunis, MD, MSc; Eric B. Bass, MD, MPH; Gordon Guyatt, MD, MSc
JAMA. 1995;274(7):570-574. doi:10.1001/jama.1995.03530070068032.
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CLINICAL SCENARIO  You are relieved to find that the last patient in your busy primary care clinic is a previously well 48-year-old woman with acute dysuria. There has been no polydipsia, fever, or hematuria; the physical examination reveals suprapubic tenderness; and urinalysis shows pyuria but no casts. You arrange cultures and antibiotic treatment for a lower urinary tract infection. On her way out the door, your patient observes that her friend has just started taking "female hormones," and she wonders whether she should too. Her menstrual periods stopped 6 months ago and she has never had cervical, ovarian, uterine, breast, or cardiovascular problems, but her mother had a mastectomy at age 57 for postmenopausal breast cancer. You give the same general advice you have offered similar patients in the past, but suggest that the matter be discussed at greater length when she returns after completing the antibiotic treatment. Later, as


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The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
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