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Fasting Before Surgery

JAMA. 1995;273(15):1171. doi:10.1001/jama.1995.03520390025013.
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Snow J. On the Inhalation of the Vapour of Ether in Surgical Operations . London, England: John Churchill; 1847:43-44.
Mendelson CL.  The aspiration of stomach contents into the lungs during obstetric anesthesia. Am J Obstet Gynecol . 1946;52:191-205.
Sandhar BK, Goresky GV, Maltby JR, Shaffer EA.  Effect of oral liquids and ranitidine on gastric fluid volume and pH in children undergoing outpatient surgery. Anesthesiology . 1989;71:327-330.
Link to Article[[XSLOpenURL/10.1097/00000542-198909000-00001]]
Scarr M, Maltby JR, Jani K, Sutherland LR.  Volume and acidity of residual gastric fluid after oral fluid ingestion before elective ambulatory surgery. Can Med Assoc J . 1989;141:1151-1154.
Schreiner MS, Triebwasser A, Keon TP.  Ingestion of liquids compared with preoperative fasting in pediatric outpatients. Anesthesiology . 1990;72:593-597.
Link to Article[[XSLOpenURL/10.1097/00000542-199004000-00002]]
Splinter WM, Stewart JA, Muir JG.  Large volumes of apple juice preoperatively do not affect gastric pH and volume in children. Can J Anaesth . 1990;37:36-39.
Link to Article[[XSLOpenURL/10.1007/BF03007481]]
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Link to Article[[XSLOpenURL/10.1111/ana.1991.46.issue-12]]
Maltby JR, Lewis P, Martin A, Sutherland LR.  Gastric fluid volume and pH in elective patients following unrestricted oral fluid until three hours before surgery. Can J Anaesth . 1991;38:425-429.
Link to Article[[XSLOpenURL/10.1007/BF03007577]]
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Link to Article[[XSLOpenURL/10.1093/bja/70.1.6]]
Coté CJ.  NPO after midnight for children: a reappraisal. Anesthesiology . 1990; 72:589-592.
Link to Article[[XSLOpenURL/10.1097/00000542-199004000-00001]]
Goresky GV, Maltby JR.  Fasting guidelines for elective surgical patients. Can J Anaesth . 1990;37:493-495.
Link to Article[[XSLOpenURL/10.1007/BF03006313]]
Kallar SK, Everett L.  Potential risks and preventive measures for pulmonary aspiration: new concepts in preoperative fasting guidelines. Anesth Analg . 1993;77: 171-182.
Link to Article[[XSLOpenURL/10.1213/00000539-199307000-00034]]
Strunin L.  How long should patients fast before surgery? time for new guidelines. Br J Anaesth . 1993;70:1-3.
Link to Article[[XSLOpenURL/10.1093/bja/70.1.1]]
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