We're unable to sign you in at this time. Please try again in a few minutes.
We were able to sign you in, but your subscription(s) could not be found. Please try again in a few minutes.
There may be a problem with your account. Please contact the AMA Service Center to resolve this issue.
Contact the AMA Service Center:
Telephone: 1 (800) 262-2350 or 1 (312) 670-7827  *   Email: subscriptions@jamanetwork.com
Error Message ......
Article |

Differences in Maternal Mortality Among Black and White Women—United States, 1990

JAMA. 1995;273(5):370-371. doi:10.1001/jama.1995.03520290022010.
Text Size: A A A
Published online


The maternal mortality ratio is the number of maternal deaths per 100 000 live births. CDC's National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) uses the term maternal mortality rate as required by the World Health Organization. In this report, the term "ratio" is used because the numerator includes some maternal deaths that were not related to live births, and thus were not included in the denominator. For this analysis, 3 years of data were combined to calculate maternal mortality ratios to promote statistical reliability and stability in the estimates. For example, 1990 ratios are based on data from 1989 through 1991. In addition, beginning with the 1989 data year, NCHS began using race of mother instead of race of child to tabulate live birth and fetal death data by race. In this analysis, race for live births is tabulated by the race of the child for maternal mortality to maintain comparability of ratios.
An underlying cause of death is defined by the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9), as "(a) the disease or injury which initiated the train of morbid events leading directly to death, or (b) the circumstances of the accident or violence which produced the fatal injury." In 1979, the ICD-9 provided the first formal definition of maternal mortality, defining maternal death as the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy. This definition differed from that used previously by NCHS, which included deaths up to 1 year after termination of pregnancy. However, the change from the 1-year limit used in the eighth revision to the 42-day limit used in the ninth revision did not greatly affect the comparability of maternal mortality statistics.4
The ICD code is revised approximately every 10 years. In the ninth revision, ectopic pregnancy (ICDA code 631) was transferred from complications of pregnancy (ICDA codes 630--634) to pregnancy with abortive outcomes (ICD codes 630-638).5 In this report, maternal deaths from ectopic pregnancy are included with abortive outcomes for all time periods.


Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?

First Page Preview

View Large
First page PDF preview




Also Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
Please click the checkbox indicating that you have read the full article in order to submit your answers.
Your answers have been saved for later.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.


Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

0 Citations

Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.