0
We're unable to sign you in at this time. Please try again in a few minutes.
Retry
We were able to sign you in, but your subscription(s) could not be found. Please try again in a few minutes.
Retry
There may be a problem with your account. Please contact the AMA Service Center to resolve this issue.
Contact the AMA Service Center:
Telephone: 1 (800) 262-2350 or 1 (312) 670-7827  *   Email: subscriptions@jamanetwork.com
Error Message ......
ARTICLE |

Hypertension in the Elderly:  Implications and Generalizability of Randomized Trials

Cynthia D. Mulrow, MD, MSc; John A. Cornell, PhD; Carlos R. Herrera, MD, MPH; Abdulmajead Kadri, PharmD; Lisa Farnett, PharmD; Christine Aguilar, MD, MPH
JAMA. 1994;272(24):1932-1938. doi:10.1001/jama.1994.03520240060042.
Text Size: A A A
Published online

Objective.  —To estimate morbidity and mortality benefits of drug therapy for hypertensive elderly subjects, compare these benefits with effects in younger subjects, and provide a framework for generalizing results derived from trials to actual patients.

Data Sources.  —A literature search using MEDLINE from 1966 to 1993, references from reviews and trial articles, and experts.

Study Selection.  —Randomized trials lasting at least 1 year that evaluated effects of drug treatment on morbidity and mortality outcomes in hypertensive persons.

Data Extraction.  —Four independent reviewers appraised protocol characteristics and quality of selected trials.

Data Synthesis.  —There were 13 trials involving 16 564 elderly persons (age 60 years and older). The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, cardiovascular disease, and competing comorbid diseases was lower among trial participants than the general population of hypertensive elderly persons. When the six large high-quality trials were combined, trial results showed 43 subjects (95% confidence interval [CI], 31 to 69) and 61 subjects (95% CI, 39 to 141) needed to be treated for 5 years to prevent one cerebrovascular event and one coronary heart disease event, respectively. Including the other seven trials did not change the results significantly. Only 18 subjects (95% CI, 14 to 25) needed to be treated to prevent one cardiovascular event (cerebrovascular or cardiac). Twelve trials in primarily younger and middle-aged adults involved approximately 33 000 persons. For all outcomes except cardiac mortality, two to fourtimes as many of the younger subjects as the older subjects needed to be treated for 5 years to prevent morbid and mortal events. No significant effect on cardiac mortality was seen among younger subjects, while 78 older subjects (95% CI, 50 to 180) needed to be treated to prevent a fatal cardiac event.

Conclusions.  —Randomized trials demonstrate that treating healthy older persons with hypertension is highly efficacious. Five-year morbidity and mortality benefits derived from trials are greater for older than younger subjects. Extrapolating benefits from trials to individual patients is difficult, but should take into account multiple issues including the patient's risk factors, preexisting cardiovascular disease, and competing comorbid illnesses.(JAMA. 1994;272:1932-1938)

Topics

Sign in

Create a free personal account to sign up for alerts, share articles, and more.

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal

Figures

Tables

References

Letters

CME
Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.

Multimedia

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Sign in

Create a free personal account to sign up for alerts, share articles, and more.

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.

Jobs
brightcove.createExperiences();