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Child Drownings and Near Drownings Associated With Swimming Pools—Maricopa County, Arizona, 1988 and 1989

JAMA. 1990;264(6):680. doi:10.1001/jama.1990.03450060026006.
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CDC.  Childhood injuries in the United States . Am J Dis Child 1990;144:627-46.
Langley J.  Fencing of private swimming pools in New Zealand . Community Health Stud 1983;7:285-9.
Link to Article[[XSLOpenURL/10.1111/j.1753-6405.1983.tb00060.x]]
Pearn J, Nixon J.  Prevention of childhood drowning accidents . Med J Aust 1977;1:616-8.
Arizona uses the following International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, rubrics to define child drowning: E830, E832, E910, E984.
In this report, near drowning is defined as a lifethreatening incident in which the child was apneic or pulled from under the surface of the water. Outcomes of near-drowning incidents were not tracked for the Maricopa County study; incidents in which the child was struggling or both floating and breathing when rescued were not counted as near-drowning incidents.


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