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Perinatal Mortality and Congenital Malformations in Infants Born to Women With Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus—United States, Canada, and Europe, 1940-1988

JAMA. 1990;264(4):437-441. doi:10.1001/jama.1990.03450040025008.
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Becerra JE, Khoury MJ, Cordero JF, Erickson JD.  Diabetes mellitus during pregnancy and the risks for specific birth defects: a population-based case-control study . Pediatrics 1990;85:1-9.
Mills JL, Knopp RH, Simpson JL, et al.  Lack of relation of increased malformation rates in infants of diabetic mothers to glycemic control during organogenesis . N Engl J Med 1988; 318:671-6.
Link to Article[[XSLOpenURL/10.1056/NEJM198803173181104]]
References are available on request from CDC's Division of Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Center for Environmental Health and Injury Control; telephone (404) 639-4706.


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