Detection of an elevated prolactin level in the nonpregnant patient usually directs attention to the investigation of the pituitary gland. We describe a patient with secondary amenorrhea and galactorrhea in whom such an elevated prolactin level did initially lead to the discovery of a pituitary mass that was treated first unsuccessfully with surgery, and then successfully with medical therapy. After medical therapy normal menstruation continued, galactorrhea recurred intermittently, and the prolactin level rose again and remained in the ≈36-μg/L range. However, 2 years later an ovarian teratoma was discovered incidentally and was removed surgically. On pathological evaluation the teratoma was noted to include prolactin-containing tissue, and immediately after surgery the patient's prolactin level and responsiveness to stimulatory testing returned to normal. To our knowledge this is the first case report of the association of clinically evident hyperprolactinemia with an ovarian cystic teratoma that contained prolactin-producing tissue.