0
We're unable to sign you in at this time. Please try again in a few minutes.
Retry
We were able to sign you in, but your subscription(s) could not be found. Please try again in a few minutes.
Retry
There may be a problem with your account. Please contact the AMA Service Center to resolve this issue.
Contact the AMA Service Center:
Telephone: 1 (800) 262-2350 or 1 (312) 670-7827  *   Email: subscriptions@jamanetwork.com
Error Message ......
ARTICLE |

Sex and Gender Bias in Anatomy and Physical Diagnosis Text Illustrations

Kathleen D. Mendelsohn; Linda Z. Nieman, PhD; Krista Isaacs; Sophia Lee; Sandra P. Levison, MD
JAMA. 1994;272(16):1267-1270. doi:10.1001/jama.1994.03520160051042.
Text Size: A A A
Published online

Objective.  —To examine the sex and gender distribution of illustrations in two atlases, five anatomy texts, and five physical diagnosis texts.

Design.  —Of 4060 illustrations that were identifiable by sex and gender in 12 commonly used anatomy and physical diagnosis textbooks, 3827 were categorized by two reviewers as female, male, or neutral.

Results.  —Females were represented, on average, in 21.2% of the anatomy text illustrations; males were represented, on average, in 44.3%; 34.4% of the illustrations were neutral. Of the nonreproductive anatomy illustrations, a mean of 11.1% (range, 4.6% to 23.8%) depicted women and 43.1% (range, 35.4% to 56.2%) depicted men. Of nonreproductive anatomy illustrations, a mean of 45.8% (range, 27.2% to 59.9%) were neutral. Overall, the physical diagnosis text illustrations demonstrated a more equal sex and gender distribution (21.5% female and 24.8% male). However, in the reproductive chapters of the physical diagnosis texts, females were depicted in a mean of 71.1% (range, 63.2% to 79.0%) of the illustrations, while in the nonreproductive chapters, females were depicted in 8.8% of total illustrations.

Conclusions.  —In anatomy and physical diagnosis texts, women are underrepresented in illustrations of nonreproductive anatomy. The finding that males are depicted in a majority of nonreproductive anatomy illustrations may perpetuate the image of the male body as the normal or standard model for medical education.(JAMA. 1994;272:1267-1270)

Topics

Sign in

Create a free personal account to sign up for alerts, share articles, and more.

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal

Figures

Tables

References

CME
Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.

Multimedia

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Sign in

Create a free personal account to sign up for alerts, share articles, and more.

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.

Jobs
brightcove.createExperiences();