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ARTICLE |

Cruzan v Director of Missouri Department of Health: An Ethical and Legal Perspective

David Orentlicher, MD, JD
JAMA. 1989;262(20):2928-2930. doi:10.1001/jama.1989.03430200176049.
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Current Opinions of the Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs of the American Medical Association—1989: Withholding or Withdrawing Life-Prolonging Treatment . Chicago, Ill: American Medical Association; 1989.
Adams RD, Victor M. Principles of Neurology . New York, NY: McGraw-Hill International Book Co; 1981:234.
Cranford RE.  The persistent vegetative state: the medical reality (getting the facts straight) . Hastings Cent Rep. 1988;18:27-32.
Dougherty JH, Rawlinson DG, Levy DE, Plum F.  Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury and the vegetative state: clinical and neuropathologic correlation . Neurology . 1981;31:991-997.
Link to Article[[XSLOpenURL/10.1212/WNL.31.8.991]]
Plum F, Posner JB. The Diagnosis of Stupor and Coma . Philadelphia, Pa: FA Davis Co Publishers; 1982.
Berrol S.  Evolution and the persistent vegetative state . J Head Trauma Rehab. 1986;1:7-13.
Link to Article[[XSLOpenURL/10.1097/00001199-198603000-00004]]
 Position of the American Academy of Neurology on certain aspects of the care and management of the persistent vegetative state patient . Neurology. 1989;39:125-126.
Link to Article[[XSLOpenURL/10.1212/WNL.39.1.125]]
Cruzan v Harmon, 760 SW 2d 408 (Mo 1988).
May WE, Barry R, Griese O, et al.  Feeding and hydrating the permanently unconscious and other vulnerable persons . Issues Law Med. 1987;3:203-211.
Physician and Public Attitudes on Health Care Issues . Chicago, Ill: American Medical Association; 1989:113.
In re Jobes, 108 NJ 394, 529 A2d 434 (1987).
Newman SA.  Treatment refusals for the critically and terminally ill: proposed rules for the family, the physician, and the state . Hum Rights Annu. 1985;3:35-89.
Uhlmann RF, Pearlman RA, Cain KC.  Physicians' and spouses' predictions of elderly patients' resuscitation preferences . J Gerontol. 1988;43:M115-M121.
Link to Article[[XSLOpenURL/10.1093/geronj/43.5.M115]]
President's Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research. Deciding to Forego Life-Sustaining Treatment. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office; 1983.
Katz J. Experimentation With Human Beings . New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation; 1972.
McConnell v Beverly Enterprises-Connecticut, 209 Conn 692,553 A3d 596, 602-603 (1989).
Barber v Superior Court, 147 Cal App ad 1006, 1016-1017,195 Cal Rptr 484 (1983).
Guidelines on the Termination of Life-Sustaining Treatment and the Care of the Dying . Briarcliff Manor, NY: The Hastings Center; 1987:26-30,61.
Callahan D.  On feeding the dying . Hastings Cent Rep. 1983;13:22.
In re Gardner, 534 A2d 947, 955 (Me 1987).

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