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Individualized Developmental Care for the Very Low-Birth-Weight Preterm Infant Medical and Neurofunctional Effects

Heidelise Als, PhD; Gretchen Lawhon, RN, PhD; Frank H. Duffy, MD; Gloria B. McAnulty, PhD; Rita Gibes-Grossman, RN, MS; Johan G. Blickman, MD
JAMA. 1994;272(11):853-858. doi:10.1001/jama.1994.03520110033025.
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Objective.  —To investigate the effectiveness of individualized developmental care in reducing medical and neurodevelopmental sequelae for very low-birth-weight infants.

Design.  —Randomized controlled trial.

Setting.  —Newborn intensive care unit.

Patients.  —Thirty-eight singleton preterm infants, free of known congenital abnormalities, weighing less than 1250 g, born before 30 weeks' gestation, mechanically ventilated within 3 hours of delivery and for more than 24 hours in the first 48 hours, randomly assigned to a control or an experimental group.

Intervention.  —Caregiving by nurses specifically trained in individualized developmental care; observation and documentation of the infants' behavior within 12 hours of admission, and subsequently every 10th day; developmental care recommendations and ongoing clinical support for the nurses and parents based on regular observation of the infant by developmental specialists; and the availability of special caregiving accessories.

Main Outcome Measures.  —Medical outcome, including average daily weight gain; number of days the infant required mechanical ventilation, oxygen, gavage tube feeding, and hospitalization; severity of retinopathy of prematurity, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, pneumothorax, and intraventricular hemorrhage; pediatric complications; age at discharge; and hospital charges. Neurodevelopmental outcome, including Assessment of Preterm Infants' Behavior scale and quantified electroencephalography (2 weeks after due date); and Bayley Scales of Infant Development and Kangaroo Box Paradigm (9 months after due date).

Results.  —The infants in the experimental group had a significantly shorter duration of mechanical ventilation and supplemental oxygen support; earlier oral feeding; reduced incidence of intraventricular hemorrhage, pneumothorax, and severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia; improved daily weight gain; shorter hospital stays; younger ages at hospital discharge; and reduced hospital charges compared with the infants in the control group. At 2 weeks after their due dates, these infants also showed improved autonomic regulation, motor system functioning, self-regulatory abilities, and visual evoked potential measures; and at 9 months, they had improved Bayley Mental and Psychomotor Developmental Index scores, as well as Kangaroo Box Paradigm scores.

Conclusion.  —Very low-birth-weight preterm infants may benefit from individualized developmental care in the neonatal intensive care unit in terms of medical and neurodevelopmental outcome.(JAMA. 1994;272:853-858)


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