Office of the Federal Register. Code of federal regulations: occupational safety and health standards. Subpart Z: Toxic and hazardous substances—lead . Washington, DC: Office of the Federal Register, National Archives and Records Administration, 1985;. (29 CFR Section 1910.1025).
McMichael AJ, Baghurst PA, Wigg NR, Vimpani GV, Robertson EF, Roberts RJ. Port Pirie Cohort Study: environmental exposure to lead and children's abilities at the age of four years . N Engl J Med 1988;;319:468-75.
Seta JA, Sundin DS, Pedersen DH. NIOSH, National Occupational Exposure Survey: field guidelines. Vol 1. Survey manual . Cincinnati, Ohio: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, 1988;; DHHS publication no. (NIOSH)88-106.
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For this report, California and New York define adults as persons aged greater than or equal to 18 years; Texas uses age 15 years as the reporting threshold, and New Jersey uses age 16 years.
This threshold was chosen for this report to permit comparison of data among the four states because Texas collects data only at or above this level.
An average BLL of 50 ug/dL based on three blood samples over a 6-month period or one sample greater than 60 ug/dL requires medical removal of employee from lead exposure without loss of wages, benefits, or seniority (Occupational Safety and Health Administration [OSHA] Lead Standard).1
During follow-up interview, the affected person indicated that exposure to lead occurred at work.
The survey defined potential exposure as 1) observation of the chemical in sufficient proximity to an employee such that one or more physical phases of the substance is likely to enter or contact the body of the worker and 2) meeting minimum duration of exposure guidelines.3