We're unable to sign you in at this time. Please try again in a few minutes.
We were able to sign you in, but your subscription(s) could not be found. Please try again in a few minutes.
There may be a problem with your account. Please contact the AMA Service Center to resolve this issue.
Contact the AMA Service Center:
Telephone: 1 (800) 262-2350 or 1 (312) 670-7827  *   Email: subscriptions@jamanetwork.com
Error Message ......
Article |

Quality Assurance in Cervical Cytology The Papanicolaou Smear

JAMA. 1989;262(12):1672-1679. doi:10.1001/jama.1989.03430120126035.
Text Size: A A A
Published online


DIAGNOSTIC cytology was developed in the 1930s and 1940s by Dr George Papanicolaou.1,2 His early work in reproductive physiology in animals was extended to that of the human female in whom hormonal status was determined by observing cytological changes in the vaginal smear. After many years of examining normal human exfoliative cytological specimens, Papanicolaou applied the technique to the study of pathological conditions. This effort culminated in the publication of a monograph Diagnosis of Uterine Cancer by the Vaginal Smear in 1943.3

Interpretation of cells removed from the female genital tract and stained by the Papanicolaou method has resulted in the earlier diagnosis of carcinoma of the uterine cervix and its precursor lesions. The Papanicolaou (Pap) smear may also detect specific infections of the lower genital tract and malignancies at other sites in the genital tract, but its primary role has been in screening for cervical neoplasms.



Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?




Also Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
Please click the checkbox indicating that you have read the full article in order to submit your answers.
Your answers have been saved for later.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.


Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

0 Citations

Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.