To determine attitudes toward women physicians within medical academia, we administered a survey to a probability sample of male and female senior medical students, faculty, and top-level administrators in a randomized, stratified subset of ten medical schools. Of the 984 respondents (65% response rate), men were much less supportive overall than women of female leaders. While women strongly disagreed with the idea that women physicians who spend long hours at work neglect home and family, men were almost equally divided on this issue. Each group rated the "typical" faculty member as "strong, fair, and progressive," but male faculty also were characterized as "egotistical" while female faculty were rated more "sensitive and altruistic." Male students were least likely to support a search for a female dean, hiring more female faculty members, or accepting an incoming class in which the majority were women.