Sixty-three addicted or impaired physicians who had been on probation with the Oregon Board of Medical Examiners were followed up in a new rehabilitation program for eight years. A majority (59%) were still on probation at follow-up, and 75% were rated as stable and improved. Problems of addiction affected 78%. The most successful treatment outcomes were for addicted physicians whose improvement was significantly associated with random urine monitoring to detect repetitive drug abuse. This research confirms an effective treatment approach for addicted or impaired physicians and is compared with other outcome studies.