0
We're unable to sign you in at this time. Please try again in a few minutes.
Retry
We were able to sign you in, but your subscription(s) could not be found. Please try again in a few minutes.
Retry
There may be a problem with your account. Please contact the AMA Service Center to resolve this issue.
Contact the AMA Service Center:
Telephone: 1 (800) 262-2350 or 1 (312) 670-7827  *   Email: subscriptions@jamanetwork.com
Error Message ......
ARTICLE |

Advances in Molecular Analysis of Fragile X Syndrome

Stephen T. Warren, PhD; David L. Nelson, PhD
JAMA. 1994;271(7):536-542. doi:10.1001/jama.1994.03510310066040.
Text Size: A A A
Published online

Fragile X syndrome is a common cause of mental retardation that is inherited as an X-linked dominant disorder with reduced penetrance. Fragile X syndrome has been shown to be caused by an unstable CGG repeat within the fragile X mental retardation—1 (FMR1) gene. The repeat is normally polymorphic with six to 52 repeats, while affected males and females exhibit a massive expansion resulting in 230 to more than 1000 repeats. Such expansions, called "full mutations," are associated with abnormal methylation of the FMR1 gene leading to transcriptional suppression. The resulting absence of the encoded protein, FMRP, a cytosolic RNA-binding protein, is believed to result in the phenotype. Nonpenetrant male carriers and many female carriers exhibit premutation alleles of intermediate length (50 to 230 repeats), which are normally expressed. Male carriers transmit only unstable premutations while female premutation carriers can have carrier offspring with premutations or affected children with full mutations. The risk of having an affected child is directly related to the number of maternal repeats, with sequentially increasing probabilities of these alleles converting to full mutations as they are transmitted to subsequent generations. Advances have led to highly accurate laboratory diagnoses of both carrier and affected individuals as well as markedly improved prenatal diagnosis. In addition, a previously unrecognized class of mutation, later found responsible for several other important genetic diseases, has emerged.

(JAMA. 1994;271:536-542)

Topics

Sign in

Create a free personal account to sign up for alerts, share articles, and more.

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal

Figures

Tables

References

Letters

CME
Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.

Multimedia

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Sign in

Create a free personal account to sign up for alerts, share articles, and more.

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.

Jobs
brightcove.createExperiences();