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Howard G. McQuarrie, MD
JAMA. 1979;241(13):1370. doi:10.1001/jama.1979.03290390048032.
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Endoscopy  Historically, the endoscopic inspection of the body cavities, particularly cystoscopy, dates from the turn of the century. Abdominal cystoscopy by Trendelenburg positioning and gaseous distension was described in 1911, and gradual improvement continued until about 20 years ago, when culdoscopy and laparoscopy came into wide use with the perfection of techniques and instrumentation. Cold illumination opened new areas to direct inspection, and light conducted along quartz rods and flexible fiberglass guides made possible the design of equipment with great diagnostic and therapeutic potential.Gynecologists have long been aware of the limitations of clinical pelvic evaluation using speculums and vaginal and abdominal palpation. Endoscopy offers advantages of magnified inspection, biopsy, and aspiration for bacterial and cytological investigation.1 Limited operations can be done such as sterilization by division or coagulation of the uterine tubes, lysis of pelvic adhesions, removal of a displaced intrauterine contraceptive device, and, recently, recovery of viable


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