In a double-blind trial, 21 patients with severe plaque psoriasis were randomly assigned to receive oral cyclosporine, 14 mg/kg/d, or its vehicle. After four weeks of therapy the 11 cyclosporine recipients had the following response to treatment: two had total clearing and six improved markedly, two moderately, and one minimally; whereas ten vehicle-treated patients showed no change or minimal improvement. Vehicle-treated patients, after a switch to cyclosporine for four weeks, demonstrated impressive improvement similar to that seen in patients who initially received only cyclosporine. Moderate or marked improvement or total clearing was noted in 17 (81%) of 21 and 20 (95%) of 21 after one and four weeks of therapy, respectively. Mitotic figures and leukotriene B4 levels in lesions decreased 86% and 64%, respectively, after seven days of cyclosporine therapy. Mononuclear (including activated T cells) and polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltrates were markedly reduced in lesions of all patients after seven days of cyclosporine therapy. These results suggest that (1) psoriasis may have an immunologic basis mediated by activated T cells and/or other immune cells; (2) if a long-term regimen with a favorable efficacy—side effect ratio can be determined, cyclosporine would be a significant advance in the treatment of psoriasis.