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Thomas E. Starzl, MD, PhD
JAMA. 1986;256(15):2110-2111. doi:10.1001/jama.1986.03380150120039.
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Nineteen eighty-five and 1986 have been consolidation years in which the great advances of the early 1980s were brought closer to fruition. The single most important advance is the immunosuppressive agent, cyclosporine, which was developed by Borel et al.1 Clinical trials with this agent were begun in England by Calne et al2 in 1978 and a year later in the United States.3 The drug was released by the Food and Drug Administration for general use in November 1983. Most commonly, cyclosporine is used in combination with steroids.3

The effectiveness of cyclosporine precipitated an avalanche of cadaveric transplantations of a variety of organs, beginning in 1980 and continuing to the present. Cadaveric renal transplantation has become increasingly accepted, not only because the results are improved over those with old-style immunosuppression, but also because the quality of life is so much better. With cyclosporine, dosage of the steroid


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