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Education of Residents

Leonard S. Stein, PhD
JAMA. 1981;246(12):1299. doi:10.1001/jama.1981.03320120011005.
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To the Editor.—  The rigorous research design and careful data collection and interpretation used by Pinkerton et al (1980;244:2183) admirably replicate previous reports that mere transmission of information in episodic learning rarely changes clinical behavior.1 Their interpretations, however, do not fully explore the medical education issues they address.The authors describe an educational intervention as consisting only of a videotape. In fact, the full learning activity included at least six steps: (1) chart audit to identify learning need, (2) transmission of relevant information via videotape, (3) pretesting and post-testing to assess gain of factual information, (4) further chart audit to see if information gained was being translated into clinical performance, (5) feedback to learners when chart audit showed no adoption of the fluoridation protocol, and (6) personal supervision of each resident. The result was a successful learning experience: "90.7% of pediatric patients assigned to these residents were ingesting the


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