The branches of the external carotid artery and their ramifications can now be made visible in the living human by injection of radiopaque materials into this artery. The territories of each branch overlap. The late Dr Djindjian and his collaborators have systematically studied the territory of each branch by opacification of the individual arteries arising from each major branch of the external carotid artery. The numberous variations in distribution and the collaterals that connect the branches on each side and from one side to the other can now be shown.
On such a base of normal anatomy, the authors have now constructed a surprisingly extensive body of knowledge of pathological processes. Not only can obvious vascular malformations and tumors be shown, but also the blood supply to lesions of such small size that surgery or other treatment is neglected.
The same technical advances have permitted improved therapy by embolization through