Two patients had community-acquired Acinetobacter calcoaceticus var anitratus pneumonia. Both patients were alcoholic and one was cirrhotic. One patient died and the other received two weeks of gentamicin therapy and survived. Misinterpretation of the sputum Gram stain delayed diagnosis and institution of proper therapy in both cases. In addition to organisms sensitive to penicillins such as Neisseria or Haemophilus, Acinetobacter must be considered in the differential diagnosis of community-acquired Gramnegative coccobacillary pneumonia.
(JAMA 238:1516-1518, 1977)