Influenza Cycles

Max Bader, MD
JAMA. 1977;237(26):2813. doi:10.1001/jama.1977.03270530021007.
Text Size: A A A
Published online

To the Editor.—  Kilbourne (237:1225, 1977) refers to possible pandemic influenza cycles of 11 and 68 years. The 68-year cycles antedating 1918 would have occurred in 1510, 1578, 1646, 1714, 1782, and 1850. It is known that an influenza-like disease was epidemic in Europe in 1510, and there was a pandemic in Europe, Africa, and Asia in 1580. An influenza-like illness of low virulence affected New England in 1647. In 1780-1782, influenza affected Europe and Asia. From 1847 to 1852, influenza epidemics that were considered mild occurred in Europe and the Americas. However, Parsons1 indicated an English influenza mortality of 285 and 460 deaths per million population for 1847 and 1848, respectively. Between 1856 and 1889, annual English influenza mortality was less than 100 deaths per million population, usually much less.In 1743, there was a virulent influenza pandemic which may have been as devastating to Britain as the pandemic


Sign In to Access Full Content

Don't have Access?

Register and get free email Table of Contents alerts, saved searches, PowerPoint downloads, CME quizzes, and more

Subscribe for full-text access to content from 1998 forward and a host of useful features

Activate your current subscription (AMA members and current subscribers)

Purchase Online Access to this article for 24 hours




Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).


Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Sign In to Access Full Content

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.