Bronchofiberscopy offers a safe, nontraumatic means of tracheobronchial toilet at the bedside. Thirty-seven procedures were performed in 27 patients with atelectasis due to mucus plugs or inspissated bronchial secretions and in three patients with lung abscess. Roentgenologic evidence of reexpansion following bronchofiberscopy was demonstrated in 85% of the patients with atelectasis. Drainage was established in two of the three patients with lung abscess. These results indicate that bronchofiberscopy is effective in aspirating secretions in atelectasis and helpful in initiating drainage of lung abscess.