High magnification, strong illumination, and miniaturized instruments have been applied in neurosurgery only since 1962 but have greatly changed the techniques and outcome in this specialized field. New procedures have been introduced, such as anastomosis of a branch of the superficial temporal artery to a branch of the middle cerebral artery, each 1.5 mm in diameter, to improve circulation in the brain in some patients with stroke. This is one of the six subjects dealt with in the two-day meeting whose participants contributed to this book. Instrumentation, cerebral aneurysms, arterial malformations of the brain and spinal cord, peripheral and cranial nerves, sellar and suprasellar tumors, and other lesions of the spinal cord are other subjects discussed in the 16 articles and 29 abstracts. Production costs made it necessary to summarize many interesting presentations, but some of these have appeared in journals in the two years since the meeting.