Twenty mongrel dogs were used to examine the efficacy of corticosteroids and antibiotics for the treatment of hydrocarbon aspiration. The animals were randomly assigned to a control or treatment group and were given a median lethal dose of kerosene intratracheally. Treated animals received intramuscularly administered dexamethasone sodium phosphate and ampicillin sodium. There was no statistical difference between the control and treated animals for mortality; respiration and pulse rates; clinical appearance; arterial pH, oxygen pressure, and carbon dioxide pressure; complete blood cell count; serum electrolyte levels; roentgenograms of the chest; or gross and microscopic pulmonary pathologic findings. The results provide no evidence that currently recommended corticosteriods and antibiotics are efficacious in the treatment of fulminant cases of hydrocarbon aspiration.