Of 5,179 school children surveyed in Utah, Nevada, and Arizona for thyroid abnormalities because of possible exposure to radiation from fallout, nodularity of the thyroid was found in 93 (1.8%). In 34, the nodularity represented lobulation associated with adolescent goiter, and in 31, thyroiditis. Two malignant neoplasms were found. In a normal childhood population in which nodularity is incidentally discovered on physical examination, the risk of nodularity being malignant is approximately 2%. Factors that favor exploration of thyroid nodules in children are discreteness, growth of the mass, singleness, and absence of other thyroid disease.
(JAMA 233:1069-1072, 1975)