In the filler, "Charcot Brought Neurology to Maturity," published May 1 (200:398, 1967) the attentive reader might have noticed that Charcot could not have possibly witnessed any events—prior to his birth in 1825—under the reign of King Charles X. One year later Louis Philippe ascended the throne. In 1848 the Second Republique was called out. In 1852 a nephew of Emperor Napoleon had the opportunity to become Emperor Napoleon III. He abdicated after the defeat of the French by the Prussians in 1870, whereafter the Third Republique was called out. In the life of Charcot, France was thus successively a kingdom, a republic, an empire, and again a republic.