We're unable to sign you in at this time. Please try again in a few minutes.
We were able to sign you in, but your subscription(s) could not be found. Please try again in a few minutes.
There may be a problem with your account. Please contact the AMA Service Center to resolve this issue.
Contact the AMA Service Center:
Telephone: 1 (800) 262-2350 or 1 (312) 670-7827  *   Email: subscriptions@jamanetwork.com
Error Message ......
Article |

Carcinoma of the Breast in Pregnancy and Lactation

Ian Macdonald, MD
JAMA. 1967;201(7):529. doi:10.1001/jama.1967.03130070049013.
Text Size: A A A
Published online


Several decades ago, carcinoma of the breast first diagnosed during pregnancy or lactation acquired an evil reputation. Some clinicians concluded that the association was so ominous that such women were categorically inoperable. The unfavorable course of these patients was thought to be due to high levels of hormonal production characteristic of pregnancy and lactation. These dismal convictions of incurability became most prevalent in the decade after Lacassagne11 produced experimental murine breast cancer by the use of diethylstilbestrol. From this classic demonstration, a number of extrapolative assumptions were derived, some of which still becloud clinical thinking today. Although investigations in later years showed basic disparities in breast cancer in mice and women, there is a persistent belief in the importance of estrogens in the causation of mammary carcinoma in women and as an incitant of its pattern of growth. A corollary phobia is the supposed hazard of substitutional therapy with


Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?




Also Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
Please click the checkbox indicating that you have read the full article in order to submit your answers.
Your answers have been saved for later.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.


Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

0 Citations

Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.