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JAMA. 1961;175(13):1172-1173. doi:10.1001/jama.1961.03040130056014.
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Discussion of speech and its disturbances presupposes familiarity with at least some of the basic concepts in this field. Sound, Hoops1 points out, is the result of the interaction of 4 elements: the acoustical energy, the vibrator, the transmitting medium, and the receiving mechanism. Resonance is defined as the relation between the generator of sound and the resonator. The number of vibrations in one second determines the frequency of the sound being emitted by the vibrator. The resonator is the second body set into vibration by the action of the first. An example is furnished by the vibration of the violin string which sets the air in the violin box into vibration. The box, containing air, is the resonator.

In voice production, the primary vibrator is the larynx with its vocal cords. The cords are vibrated by the stream of air from the lungs. The resonance in the human


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