The technique of scalene node biopsy here described involves the excision of a fat pad, en bloc, containing lymph nodes, from the neck. The value of the information so obtained was assessed by a study of 102 cases. In many the biopsy did not lead to the diagnosis, but in many others it did. Its value in sarcoidosis is illustrated by a case history. Three other case histories illustrate its value in recognizing a circumscribed pulmonary carcinoma amenable to surgery, in settling the diagnosis and determining the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis, and in confirming the inoperability of a malignant lymphoma. In this series of biopsies there were no serious complications, and the authors recommend the procedure as having a definite place in the treatment of intrathoracic disease.