0
ARTICLE |

CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE AND HARDNESS OF WATER

Walter Menaker, M.D., M.P.H.
JAMA. 1960;174(10):1346-1347. doi:10.1001/jama.1960.03030100114033.
Text Size: A A A
Published online

ABSTRACT

To the Editor:—  The paper by Schroeder on mortality from cardiovascular disease in relation to treated water supplies (J. A. M. A.172:1902 [April 23] 1960) does not state the magnitude of the difference in mortality rates for white men ( aged 45 to 64 years ) living in hard water and soft water states. The 12 states with softest water (lowest quartile) show a death rate for cardiovascular diseases that is only 10% higher than the 12 states with hardest water (when each state's population is given due weight). Furthermore, the 12 softest water states show an average death rate for these diseases (if each state is given equal weight) barely above the national average. Six of these 12 states are below the national average in mortality rate for these diseases. Such facts do not lend support to the hypothesis that soft or softened water increases cardiovascular mortality; indeed, the

Topics

Sign In to Access Full Content

Don't have Access?

Register and get free email Table of Contents alerts, saved searches, PowerPoint downloads, CME quizzes, and more

Subscribe for full-text access to content from 1998 forward and a host of useful features

Activate your current subscription (AMA members and current subscribers)

Purchase Online Access to this article for 24 hours

First Page Preview

View Large
/>
First page PDF preview

Figures

Tables

References

CME
Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
NOTE:
Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).

Multimedia

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Sign In to Access Full Content

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.

Jobs
brightcove.createExperiences();