According to the medical histories of 59 children having thyroid cancer, 58 had palpable masses in the neck which were not associated with preceding infections or systemic reactions. The neoplasm occurred most frequently in girls (40) and characteristically grew slowly. Often, early in the course of the disease, metastatic growths were found in the cervical lymph nodes. Two patients had tumors located in thyroid lobes directly under skin areas previously treated with roentgen rays, one for a hemangioma and another a keloid. Treatment of choice for such tumors in children, as in adults, is surgical excision when the lesion is considered operable. Radioiodine is of benefit when administered to selected patients with inoperable lesions. Those which do not accumulate iodine should be treated with roentgen rays or radium.