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James O. Elam, M.D.; David G. Greene, M.D.; Max A. Schneider, M.D.; Henning M. Ruben, M.D.; Archer S. Gordon, M.D.; Robert F. Hustead, M.D.; Donald W. Benson, M.D.; John A. Clements, M.D.; Arne Ruben, M.D.
JAMA. 1960;172(8):812-815. doi:10.1001/jama.1960.03020080042011.
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Mouth-to-mouth and mouth-to-nose methods of artificial respiration are simplified and made more effective if the patient's neck is extended by the procedure here described. With the patient in the supine or semilateral position, the rescuer uses one hand to tilt the patient's head as far back as possible. He uses his other hand to pull the patient's chin upward. Circumstances determine whether the rescuer will apply his mouth to the mouth or the nose of the patient. The use of adjuncts like tubes and masks by untrained laymen in order to avoid direct contact is not recommended.


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