According to Pavlovian principles, the social factor is important in forming the personality. Hence, in a Marxist society there should be little conflict between society and the individual. Conflict can, however, result from disequilibrium between social forces and individual capacities. Deviations must be corrected by persuasion, suggestion, punishment, or in special cases by treatment. Three case histories illustrate the application of these principles in patients with anxiety reaction, depressive reaction, and hysterical conversion. Little attention is paid to infancy as a nucleus of later conflict, to sexual problems, which are solved by the relative sexual freedom of the adolescent, or to worries about the social security, which has to be accepted by the individual as it is offered by society. In this context, the psychiatrist and his patient, as products of the same society, have no choice, and psychotherapy simply aims to reconstruct the broken socially conditioned reflexes by verboverbal associations to a certain type of nervous system.