We're unable to sign you in at this time. Please try again in a few minutes.
We were able to sign you in, but your subscription(s) could not be found. Please try again in a few minutes.
There may be a problem with your account. Please contact the AMA Service Center to resolve this issue.
Contact the AMA Service Center:
Telephone: 1 (800) 262-2350 or 1 (312) 670-7827  *   Email: subscriptions@jamanetwork.com
Error Message ......
Article |


Ralph Adams, M.D.; Burke Fahlman, M.S.; Edna W. Dube, R.N.; Francis J. C. Dube, M.D.; Stanley Read, M.S.
JAMA. 1959;169(14):1557-1567. doi:10.1001/jama.1959.03000310009002.
Text Size: A A A
Published online


A searching study of hospital infections showed that blankets, shoes, the bottoms of trousers, straw brooms, dry mops, and certain types of vacuum cleaners were important spreaders of infection. It was found that the surgical area could be cleaned up and would remain clean until contamination was introduced. Personnel could learn so to conduct themselves with respect to masks, clothing, and shoes that they would not introduce contamination. An interchange zone was developed to separate the surgical area from uncontrolled areas, and a sexless, sizeless, reversible gown and improved footwear were adopted to facilitate changing when personnel are obliged to pass from one area to another. A fitted filter autoclavable mask was devised to prevent contamination of clean room air by respiratory exhalations of personnel or patients. If deep-seated wound infections with resultant systemic manifestations are to be prevented, the ultimate in asepsis must be attained, and no leniency can be tolerated.


Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?




Also Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
Please click the checkbox indicating that you have read the full article in order to submit your answers.
Your answers have been saved for later.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.


Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

0 Citations

Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.