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Elmer R. Maurer, M.D.; James A. Schaal, M.D.; F. L. Mendez Jr., M.D.
JAMA. 1958;168(15):2013-2014. doi:10.1001/jama.1958.63000150008012c.
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Chronic recurring spontaneous pneumothorax is a relatively common disorder which usually results from rupture of subpleural blebs. Endometriosis of the diaphragm, on the other hand, is an exceedingly rare lesion and, as nearly as can be determined, has never been reported in association with, or as a cause of, unilateral recurring pneumothorax.

The following case report is presented because of the extreme rarity of the lesion involved and the unusual association of pneumothorax with the menstrual cycle. It is the first recorded instance of successful surgical treatment of chronic recurring pneumothorax by excision of a defect in the diaphragm that has resulted from endometriosis.

Report of a Case  A 35-year-old woman was first seen in consultation on March 13, 1953, because of pain and dyspnea resulting from a spontaneous pneumothorax on the right side. The patient had had two previous spontaneous pneumothoraces on the right, the first having occurred on


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