We're unable to sign you in at this time. Please try again in a few minutes.
We were able to sign you in, but your subscription(s) could not be found. Please try again in a few minutes.
There may be a problem with your account. Please contact the AMA Service Center to resolve this issue.
Contact the AMA Service Center:
Telephone: 1 (800) 262-2350 or 1 (312) 670-7827  *   Email: subscriptions@jamanetwork.com
Error Message ......
Article |


James L. Tullis, M.D.; Melvin M. Ketchel, Ph.D.; Hugh M. Pyle; Robert B. Pennell, Ph.d.; John G. Gibson II, M.D.; Robert J. Tinch, M.S.; Shirley G. Driscoll, M.D.
JAMA. 1958;168(4):399-404. doi:10.1001/jama.1958.03000040035008.
Text Size: A A A
Published online


Ninety-four units of blood have been collected, glycerolized, stored in the frozen state at either —80 C or —120 C, deglycerolized, stored at 4 C, and then used clinically. A technique has been developed for maintaining sterility at every step. Even after storage at very low temperatures for periods up to 19 months, the red blood cells appeared therapeutically comparable to cells stored at 4 C up to 21 days in a standard A.C.D. (anticoagulant acid citrate dextrose) solution. The longevity of red blood cells in the circulatory system of the recipient was studied by using chromium 51 for labeling and was found to be independent of the duration of storage. The loss of red blood cells by lysis during the process as a whole seemed to be due entirely to irreversible random damage during collection and handling rather than to storage at low temperature. The sterility of the system made possible an additional postthawing storage of the red blood cells for up to 11 days at 4 C before use in transfusions. No transfusion reactions of any kind were noted.


Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?




Also Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
Please click the checkbox indicating that you have read the full article in order to submit your answers.
Your answers have been saved for later.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.


Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

0 Citations

Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.