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OXYGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE EXCHANGE AND ENERGY COST OF EXPIRED AIR RESUSCITATION

James O. Elam, M.D.; David G. Greene, M.D.; Elwyn S. Brown, M.D.; John A. Clements, M.D.
JAMA. 1958;167(3):328-334. doi:10.1001/jama.1958.72990200019008b.
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This report reviews results of several studies of expired air resuscitation carried out in our laboratories over four years.1 After a preliminary survey in 1952, a coordinated series of measurements were made in Buffalo, Baltimore, and at the Army Chemical Center, Edgewood, Md. These projects were sponsored by the Office of the Surgeon General, Department of the Army, because of the urgency of problems of resuscitation in nerve gas poisoning. Requirements called for a method of artificial respiration possessing high efficiency, simplicity, and inherent safety. The data reviewed here have been the basis for recent adoption in principle by the Army of expired air resuscitation as the field method of choice in the treatment of nerve gas casualties.

The possibilities of using the expired air of one person to ventilate another are apparent from simple calculations. The concentration of oxygen in expired air is dependent upon the oxygen consumption,

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