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Body Water in Man: The Acquisition and Maintenance of the Body Fluids

JAMA. 1958;166(5):552. doi:10.1001/jama.1958.02990050122022.
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In this treatise on water and electrolyte balance, the author reviews the evolutionary patterns of water control from the one-celled animals to man. This serves as an excellent background for discussion of the complex problems of human water and electrolyte balance. The author has devoted much time to the physiological discussion of the regulatory effects of salt ingestion, water ingestion, effect of total renal mass, urea diuresis, the antidiuretic hormone ( ADH ), and the hypothalamicohypophyseal system. He has gone into great detail concerning the stimulating effects of emotion, pain, morphine, anesthesia, acetylcholine, osmotic pressure, and decreased blood volume in the production of ADH. Another chapter deals with the inhibitory effects on ADH production by epinephrine, emotional stress, lowered temperature, alcohol, carbon dioxide inhalation, posture, and diurnal variation in ADH production. The effects of the various stimulators and inhibitors of ADH are also evaluated from the standpoint of the simultaneous comparison of


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