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Arthur E. MacNeill, M.D.; John E. Doyle, M.D.; Ernest Witebsky, M.D.; Paul R. Swanson, M.D.
JAMA. 1956;161(17):1630-1633. doi:10.1001/jama.1956.62970170006005c.
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During the past 10 years various techniques of blood dialysis have been studied and used in many of the larger medical centers in this country.1 The results of these trials have been extensively reported by many authors, and some very large series of treatments in man have been assembled. Reports from abroad, including the original clinical work of Kolff2 and the studies of Alwall,3 have been of great interest. In most cases the equipment necessary has been large, heavy, and expensive, and its lack of portability has required that the patient be moved to a medical center large enough to maintain such a treatment service. Increasing experience with such techniques seems to indicate that they are of value in a number of clinical situations other than renal failure,4 for which use they were first popularized.

In 1942, one of us (A.E.M.) designed several styles of blood


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