Robert Austrian, M.D.
JAMA. 1957;163(12):1040-1045. doi:10.1001/jama.1957.82970470004009.
Text Size: A A A
Published online


Pneumonia may be caused by a variety of infectious agents: bacteria, viruses, rickettsias, and fungi. In addition, the disorder may be a primary one or may complicate preexisting pulmonary or systemic disease of an infectious or noninfectious nature. Essential, therefore, to the optimum management of pneumonia is knowledge of the etiological agent and of the pathogenesis of the illness to be treated.

Laboratory Studies  Before treatment is begun, data derived from a complete history and physical examination of the patient should be at hand. In addition to the routine examination of the blood and urine, other laboratory studies, including posteroanterior and lateral roentgenograms of the chest and a culture of the blood and the sputum, should be performed. A study of the sputum is of especial importance, for, when pneumonia is of bacterial or fungal origin, it provides the most ready means of establishing the etiological agent. Sputum should be


Sign In to Access Full Content

Don't have Access?

Register and get free email Table of Contents alerts, saved searches, PowerPoint downloads, CME quizzes, and more

Subscribe for full-text access to content from 1998 forward and a host of useful features

Activate your current subscription (AMA members and current subscribers)

Purchase Online Access to this article for 24 hours

First Page Preview

View Large
First page PDF preview




Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).


Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Sign In to Access Full Content

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.