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BIOLOGICALLY FALSE POSITIVE SEROLOGIC TESTS FOR SYPHILIS:  TYPE, INCIDENCE, AND CAUSE

Joseph Earle Moore, M. D.; Charles F. Mohr, M.D.
JAMA. 1952;150(5):467-473. doi:10.1001/jama.1952.03680050033010.
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The Wassermann test for the diagnosis of syphilis was introduced into clinical practice in 1907.1 This immunologic reaction, utilizing the phenomenon of complement fixation, has since been modified, refined, and simplfied through the use of flocculation techniques (Michaelis2). Many improvements of original techniques have been made by subsequent workers, resulting in the introduction of new tests usually known by the names of their originators, e. g., in the United States, the Kolmer, Eagle, Kahn, Kline, Hinton, Mazzini, and other tests, or even subvariants of these, as the Kahn standard, presumptive, and verification tests. Although it is customary for each author-serologist to claim that his test has some special virtues that set it apart from others, it is none the less true that all of these tests depend on basically identical physiochemical and immunologic phenomena. They differ from each other only in minor technical details. It is also true

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