There has been very little written on nephrostomy drainage and splinting of the ureter in routine kidney surgery except in connection with pyeloplasties and revision of the ureteropelvic junction. However, we believe that by applying the following two fundamental surgical principles, nephrostomy drainage and a ureteral splint will be more frequently used: 1. An infected kidney should be adequately drained. 2. Ureteral peristalsis is dependent on a histologically normal intact ureter and fluid within the lumen.
If one goes back many years prior to the advent of chemotherapy and antibiotics, one finds that it was not an infrequent occurrence for a urologist to do a nephrostomy or a pyelostomy in cases of severe pyelonephritis of pregnancy. For a long period of time nothing of importance was done about nephrostomy drainage until the advent of plastic surgery on the pelvis of the kidney and upper part of the ureter. In this