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JAMA. 1951;147(7):668. doi:10.1001/jama.1951.03670240052013.
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In listing the sources from which she had isolated Coxsackie virus, Howitt,1 of the U. S. Public Health Service, included the urine of one patient. Because of the possible epidemiologic significance of this finding, Pappenheimer2 and associates, of Harvard University, tested the possibility of urinary viral excretion in laboratory animals.

Their initial experiments were made with newborn mice inoculated intraperitoneally with a 1:1000 dilution of Conn. no. 5 strain of Coxsackie virus. After 48 hours, at which time the mice showed the usual signs of illness, urine was obtained by direct aspiration of the bladder with a tuberculin syringe. After the addition of penicillin and streptomycin, 0.02 cc. of 1:3 dilution of this urine was inoculated intraperitoneally into 1 to 2 day old mice. Three days later 9 of the 10 mice that received the injection were dead or missing. The surviving mouse was killed and histological study


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