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Douglas Symmers, M.D.
JAMA. 1951;147(4):304-305. doi:10.1001/jama.1951.03670210016005.
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One of the most important of parasitic diseases is caused by the blood fluke, Schistosoma haematobium. The disease is prevalent in North and South Africa, especially in Egypt, but also in the Sudan, Ethiopia, the Congo, and Rhodesia, as well as in Arabia, Persia, the west coast of India, Madagascar, Puerto Rico, and occasionally in Australia and the United States. Cirrhosis of the liver is among the disabilities which are caused by or are associated with the presence of this parasite. In Egypt there is a variety of cirrhosis which is attended by the presence of the ova of Bilharzia. The lesion is characterized by enormous thickening of the periportal connective tissue and is sometimes called pipe stem cirrhosis. In China and Japan and in the Philippines there is a disease known as Asiatic schistosomiasis, which is characterized by cirrhosis of the liver, splenomegaly, ascites, dysentery, progressive anemia, and sometimes


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